Monday, December 2, 2013

Becoming Scientists through Video Analysis

Becoming Scientists through Video Analysis

Student Characteristics & Outcomes (Academic)

Abstract:

This project seeks to allow secondary (express, normal academic) students to be like scientists (obtain real data from physical phenomena, engage in making inference and deducing how the physical world work) through video analysis.

The learning problem arises from students “absorbing” knowledge for pen-paper examinations through simplified and often unrealistic examples, which is unlikely to inspire a love for lifelong learning.

The proposed practice involves teacher mentoring students 1) to ask questions, 2) use models 3) plan, observe, experiment and measure 4) analyse, interpret, 5) calculate, think, imagine 6) explain with evidence 7) argue, critique and 8), reason ,predict and communicate real-life phenomena through video analysis, supported by teachers’ differentiated mentoring instructions. The product(s) include commonly used physics education tool Tracker, Logger Pro and mobile apps to support teachers’ work.

This learning practice is innovative because students ask their own scientific questions and attempt to create analysis based on their evidences and present a creditable argument for peer critique, like in scientific communities.

The project team aims to develop lesson package(s) through iterative design involves teachers co-design, implement and evaluate of lesson packages that goes through customization by other project schools teachers to suit their students’ learning needs.

Case study approach of capturing student learning where these artefacts of performance of learning (source files *trz, project writeup *.doc and presentation *.ppt) together with interviews, lesson observations and pre-post survey aims to guide future lesson(s) with students on these 8 essential elements of practices of scientists.


Targeted Learner:

secondary (express, normal academic) students. becoming like scientists (real world application of physics concepts like a force acting on a ball and force in swimming a butterfly stroke).



Problem: 

Learning problem: Students learn passively as school practices focus on uninspiring tasks using pen and paper. Students do not see any meaning in completing word problems without any application to the real world.


Documents: 

First-Hand experience (research paper PER)


Goals: 

Allowing students to be like scientists, obtaining real data from physical phenomena, engage in making inference and deducing how the physical world works. After studying the 55 evidence-based teaching methods from Physics Education Research http://www.compadre.org/perug/, we found that for the learning approach proposed, the Open Source Physics Collection (OSP), in particular Tracker video analysis suits our identified student-becoming-scientist goal.

In addition, these tool(s) are popularly used by physicists and physics educators, promoting students 1) to ask questions, 2) use models 3) plan, observe, experiment and measure 4) analyse, interpret, 5) calculate, think, imagine 6) explain with evidence 7) argue, critique and 8), reason ,predict and communicate with their own video analysis. High ability students can even engage in video modelling (Brown, 2012; Wee, 2012; Wee & Lee, 2011) to propose their own mathematical expressions-models that ‘represent’ the real world (Wee, Chew, Goh, Tan, & Lee, 2012).

Pedagogical approach: 

Inquiry based (Barron & Darling-Hammond, 2008)

Heuristics: 

 adapted from K-12 science framework (A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas, 2012) eight essential elements of science practices and essential features of science inquiry (Olson & Loucks-Horsley, 2000)
adapted by lookang from K-12 science framework (A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas, 2012) eight essential elements of science practices and essential features of science inquiry (Olson & Loucks-Horsley, 2000)
adapted by Loo Kang WEE Lawrence from K-12 science framework (A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas, 2012) eight essential elements of science practices and essential features of science inquiry (Olson & Loucks-Horsley, 2000)



Teacher Centered
Teacher Driven
Teacher Guided
Student Centered
1. Asking questions
Question provided by teacher, materials, or other source
Learner sharpens or clarifies question provided by teacher, materials, or other source
Learner selects among questions, poses new questions
Learner poses a question
2. Developing and using models
All connections provided by teacher
Possible connections
provided by teacher
Learner directed toward areas and sources of scientific knowledge
Learner independently examines other resources and forms
the links to explanations
3. Planning and carrying out investigations
Plan provided by teacher
Learner sharpens plan provided by teacher
Learner selects among plans, sharpens own plan
Learner plan independently
4. Analyzing and interpreting data
Data provided by teacher and told how to analyze
Data provided by teacher and asked to analyze
Learner directed to collect certain data
Learner determines what
constitutes evidence and
collects it
5. Using mathematics and computational thinking
Mathematics thinking provided by teacher
Mathematics thinking provided by teacher and asked to think in that way
Learner directed to think with mathematics
Learner determines what mathematical thinking is appropriate
6. Constructing explanations
possible explanations provided by teacher
Learner given possible ways to use evidence to formulate explanation
Learner guided in the process of formulating explanation from evidence
Learner formulates
explanation after
summarizing evidence
7. Engaging in argument from evidence
Arguments provided by teacher
Learner sharpens argument provided by teacher
Learner selects among evidences, sharpens own argument
Learner argue from evidences found
8. Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information
Step and procedures for communication provided by teacher
Broad guidelines to
sharpen presentation
provided by teacher
Learner coached in
development of
communication
Learner formulates
reasonable and logical argument to communicate explanation

Tools
Tracker
Logger Pro
Video Physics for iOS
Intrinsic value
Deep Video analysis
Deep Video analysis
Simple Video analysis
Comments
Added pedagogy of mathematical modelling
Added interfacing with sensors
Intended for use with Logger Pro when PC is available
Level
Designed for college, can be adapted for high school, teacher professional development
Designed for college, can be adapted for high school, teacher professional development
Designed for high school
Settings
At home, in class, anywhere
Lab, homework, studio
Labs
At home, in class, anywhere
Topics
Mechanics, Waves, Astronomy
Mechanics, Waves
Mechanics
Instructor Effort
Low
Low
Very Low
Resources needs
Projector in class, Computers for student use in class, Computers for student use outside of class
Projector in class, Computers for student use in class, Computers for student use outside of class
Projector in class and iOS devices required
Research Validation
how students learn, scores on multiple choice conceptual tests
how students learn, scores on multiple choice conceptual tests
Nil
Developer
Douglas Brown
Vernier Software & Technology
Vernier Software & Technology
Website



























Study Question

What are the shifts and common scientists’ practices-characteristics of those students participating in this project study and how can these shifts and commonalities be used to aid the educational community in enactment of core practices of scientists with students in schools?What are the learning outcomes and the lesson processes that facilitate these learning outcome(s)? Eg: students behave like scientists?


Data Collection


  1. artefacts of performance of learning (source files RGS NJC1 NJC2 *trz, project writeup RVHS2010 more samples RGS more sample *.doc and presentation *.ppt) 
  2. assessment rubrics with scores % RVHS2010
  3. Reflections such as most significant story on being a scientist. [themes gathering] 
  4. Video filming actual student discourse/working on the learning tasks 
  5. Interview 
  6. Field observation 
  7. Pre-post survey https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1S_nW4eAphq-Y72jMWF3W0oW2xdgOvCWtZrKqTNfO-qQ/viewform

Framework:

Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas (NRC, 2012) for “observable behaviors” (R3) for becoming a scientists.


Data Analysis

  1. · Performance grades 
  2. · assessment scores % 
  3. · Teacher(s) readings of sample significant story on being a scientist. [themes gathering] 
  4. · Teacher(s) and expert agreement of video learning tasks 
  5. · Teacher(s) readings of Interview 
  6. · Teacher(s) readings of Field observation 
  7. · Statistics mean and standard deviation of 6 point likert scale Pre-post survey 

Simplified Domains-aspects of scientists:

1) to ask questions, 2) use models 3) plan, observe, experiment and measure 4) analyse, interpret, 5) calculate, think, imagine 6) explain with evidence 7) argue, critique and 8), reason ,predict and communicate

Rationale

Case study

A case study (or case report) is a descriptive, exploratory or explanatory analysis of a social group and the event to explore the causation in order to find underlying principles.

Augmented: A traditional pre-post treatment survey will also serve to triangulate the affective domains from the students’ perspectives on being scientists.