1.26 removes "is" involves
2.28 remove checkbox replace with input field
make sound amplify for the first section, cos 2 n 3 section are louder
- show real vernier caliper and micrometer
- show simulated vernier caliper n micrometer
- show 3 design ideas of simulated vernier caliper n micrometer
- show test scores
- conclude: it is about blending the best of the real and virtual for learning in harmony, not in competition.
- end: the simulations are free and open sourced, licensed creative commons attribution: Fu-Kwun Hwang and Loo Kang WEE for the benefit of everyone regardless of nationality.
How to make a good video abstract
Tips and suggestions from Physics Education
Video abstracts are a great way to increase the visibility and effectiveness of your article. By including a video, authors can go beyond the constraints of a traditional written article to communicate key messages, and provide a new, enhanced user experience for the journal's global audience.
PED articles with a video abstract are flagged with the symbol. Full details about this new feature can be found in the guidelines.
Why make a video abstract?
Video abstracts are a great way to explain your research with greater freedom and variety than in a traditional paper. Our copyright allows you to host your video abstract on your own website as well as the PED homepage and YouTube channel so that you can disseminate your work and communicate its implications to the widest possible audience.
They are not intended to describe the contents of your paper in the way that a written abstract would.
In a video abstract you can
- include practical demonstrations—illustrate teaching examples, introduce viewers to the equipment and tools you have used and engage with your audience in a more informal manner.
- If you have visual data such as simulations or animations, video abstracts are a good place to showcase them.
- Video abstracts should be engaging and interesting and offer viewers more than you could write in an abstract. The key is to be creative and make full use of the audio-visual medium.
Raise your visibility
In addition to our author-friendly copyright, which allows you to host your video abstract anywhere on the web, the Brightcove video platform used for hosting has excellent sharing functionality. This allows viewers to bring your video to the attention of the rest of the world too.
On the web
All our abstracts are hosted on the PED homepage and YouTube channel. As such it is essential they can be viewed on the web: when uploaded the video will be compressed to ensure file sizes are small and playback times as short as possible. Your video will not have the same quality as one viewed on a television screen. However, there are a number of ways to ensure it looks and sounds good on the web.
What to film
Video abstracts should be three to four minutes in length. To ensure your audience watches to the end you must hold their attention. Structuring your abstract to tell a story about your research is a good way to do this.
Be creativeWe welcome creativity and you can include practical demonstrations, animations, interviews and anything else you can think of. Alternatively, you can keep the structure very simple but always try to engage with your audience.
You can have one or multiple presenters and film group discussions.
Within reason, you can film at any location you like.
Before you begin
If you have access to one, be sure to contact your press officer for advice before you start filming to see how they can help you. Also note that you will require permission to reuse any previously published material in your video abstract, just as you would for a regular article.
Whether your video abstract contains lots of edited footage or a very simple single shot, audio-visual quality is essential to ensure your audience gets the most out of your efforts. If it is difficult to follow because of poor visual or sound quality it will not be watched.
Tips for improving visual quality
LightingDo try to ensure that you have as much light as possible when filming your video. Natural light gives better results and filming your piece to camera outside is a good way of ensuring even lighting conditions. Sometimes your own office or laboratory can be the best place to discuss your research. If you are sitting in your office ensure the lighting is adequate. Try to use multiple light sources to avoid creating too much contrast.
Don't sit directly in front of a window or any other light sources.
Do try to reduce vibration to a minimum by using a tripod or use a camcorder with a stabilizer. This will make the overall quality of the video look better after compression.
Don't attempt to film while walking and don't zoom in and out too often.
Do ensure the background behind the presenter in your video is suitable if they are performing a piece to camera.
Do make sure there is nothing moving in the background that might distract the viewer's attention. The simpler the background, the better it will look on a computer screen.
Don't use blank walls, empty whiteboards or blackboards as a backdrop. Stationary backdrops are better for compression but coloured backgrounds, posters or the bookshelf in your office might be better, more interesting alternatives.
Do use a slight overexposure when filming as this reduces intricate details, resulting in less information to process during video compression. Also, some computer screens tend to make videos look darker, so added brightness can improve image quality.
Don't underexpose your subject too much as the resultant video may appear even darker and more difficult to discern on screen.
Do keep your frame simple. Trying to incorporate too much action or movement in a frame will make the eventual file compression more difficult. If a person is speaking to camera, try filming them from the shoulders up to avoid catching too much body movement.
Don't film in areas where people or traffic are likely to appear in the frame.
Addressing your audience
Do maintain eye contact with the camera if addressing your audience directly.
Do choose to have someone standing off camera at whom you can look to maintain a constant eye level if filming your piece in the style of an interview.
Don't get distracted by activity off-camera.
EquationsDo use equations to describe your work where relevant. If you wish to display or write equations on a whiteboard or blackboard ensure that the characters are large enough to discern and are legible.
Don't use bright lights to illuminate your writing surface: white- and blackboards can reflect light and obscure the surface for the viewer, so please be aware of this and alter the position of your light source accordingly. A room with plenty of natural light is best.
AnimationsDo incorporate data, animations or simulations into your video to further illustrate your work and engage your audience.
Don't display animations by filming them on a computer screen or a wall projection while you present to camera. This method makes animations very difficult for viewers to discern. If you want to use presentation slides, there are many ways you can convert them into online Flash movies.
Do include a transcript for your video abstract. PED has an international readership and while we publish all research in English, it is not the first language of many of our readers. A transcript will allow anyone to follow your video abstract and help them get the most out of your efforts.
Do speak clearly at all times.
Do speak to your audience. Silent films with no narration are much less engaging.
TranscriptDo ensure that your transcript is written in correct English.
Don't submit a transcript that differs from the narrative on your video.
Do ensure that background noise is kept to a minimum if you film in your lab: loud extractor fans/motors etc will reduce the sound quality and will be very difficult to edit out.
Don't film next to busy roads or in high wind if you film outside.
Do use a lapel microphone if possible. However, if you do not have such equipment, ensuring that the background noise is reduced as much as possible will improve the sound quality.
Do ensure you have full copyright permission if you include background music. If you do not already have this it could delay publication of your video abstract. This also applies to any third-party images or screenshots.
For some ideas of how to present your work here are several examples of previously published video abstracts.
Stopping a roller coaster trainAnn-Marie Pendrill, Magnus Karlsteen and Henrik Rödjegård2012 Phys. Educ. 47 728
Making a fish tank cloud chamberFrances Green2012 Phys. Educ. 47 338
Extra hints and tips
There are lots of great resources online to help you make the best of your footage and storyboard.
Don't forget that you may already have movie editing software on your computer and there are numerous websites that offer advice on how to make the most of these resources.
YouTube: create videos
Microsoft: Movie Maker
Smart Blog on Social Media: 11 tips for creating better online videos